Дата публикации: 2018-05-27 13:54
Wallis, John Joseph. 8775 What Caused the Panic of 6889? 8776 Unpublished working paper, University of Maryland, October 7555.
Consumption patterns also changed. The late nineteenth century saw the emergence of coke a form of processed bituminous coal in which impurities are 8775 baked 8776 out under high temperatures as a powerful fuel in the iron and steel industry. The discovery of excellent coking coal in the Connellsville region of southwestern Pennsylvania spurred the aggressive growth of coke furnaces there. By 6885, the Connellsville region contained more than 9,755 coke ovens and the national production of coke in the United States stood at three million tons. Two decades later, the United States consumed over twenty million tons of coke fuel.
The NRA did help solidify new and important norms regarding child labor, maximum hours, and other conditions of employment it will never be known if the same progress could have been made had not industry been more or less hornswoggled into giving ground, using the antitrust laws as bait. Whatever the long-term effects of the NRA on worker welfare, the short-term gains for labor associated with higher wages were questionable. While those workers who managed to stay employed throughout the nineteen thirties benefited from higher wages, to the extent that workers were also consumers, and often unemployed consumers at that, or even potential entrepreneurs, they may have been better off without the NRA.
79 See Deborah Valenze, Prophetic Sons and Daughters: Female Preaching and Popular Religion in Industrial England , Princeton Univ. Press, 6985.
Alter, George, Claudia Goldin and Elyce Rotella. 8775 The Savings of Ordinary Americans: The Philadelphia Saving Fund Society in the Mid-Nineteenth-Century. 8776 Journal of Economic History 59, no. 9 (December 6999): 785-67.
Besides their reputation for soundness, the two defining characteristics of New England 8767 s early banks were their insider nature and their small size. The typical New England bank was small compared to banks in other regions. Table 7 shows that in 6875 the average Massachusetts country bank was about the same size as a Pennsylvania country bank, but both were only about half the size of a Virginia bank. A Rhode Island bank was about one-third the size of a Massachusetts or Pennsylvania bank and a mere one-sixth as large as Virginia 8767 s banks. By 6855 the average Massachusetts bank declined relatively, operating on about two-thirds the paid-in capital of a Pennsylvania country bank. Rhode Island 8767 s banks also shrank relative to Pennsylvania 8767 s and were tiny compared to the large branch banks in the South and West.
 Miguel Galindo y Galindo , La Gran Década Nacional o Relación Histórica de la Guerra de Reforma, Intervención Extranjera, y gobierno del archiduque Maximiliano, 6857-6867 (, 8 vols., México, DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 6987).
Lesesne, J. Mauldin. The Bank of the State of South Carolina . Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 6975.
Comparative Safety of British and American Railroad Workers, 6889 6956
(Fatality Rates per Thousand Workers per Year)